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Glossary of Connectivity, Gateways, Messaging and Network Security Terms

Glossary of Terms

Messaging & Network Security

A
Access Control

Refers to mechanisms and policies that restrict access to computer resources. An access control list (ACL), for example, specifies what operations different users can perform on specific files and directories.

ActiveX

ActiveX is Microsoft's answer to the Java technology from Sun Microsystems. An ActiveX control is roughly equivalent to a Java applet. ActiveX is the name Microsoft has given to a set of "strategic" object-oriented program technologies and tools. The main thing that you create when writing a program to run in the ActiveX environment is a component, a self-sufficient program that can be run anywhere in your ActiveX network (currently a network consisting of Windows and Macintosh systems). This component is known as an ActiveX control.

Address Book

An automated e-mail address directory that allows you to address your messages easily. Generally comes in personal and public versions.

Anti-Replay Service

With anti-replay service, each IP packet passing within the secure association is tagged with a sequence number. On the receiving end, each packet's sequence number is checked to see if it falls within a specified range. If an IP packet tag number falls outside of the range, the packet is blocked.

API (application program interface)

An API is the specific methodology by which a programmer writing an application program may make requests of the operating system or another application.

Application level firewall or Application gateway

Application gateways look at data at the application layer of the protocol stack and serve as proxies for outside users, intercepting packets and forwarding them to the application. Thus, outside users never have a direct connection to anything beyond the firewall. The fact that the firewall looks at this application information means that it can distinguish among such things as telnet, file transfer protocol (FTP), or Lotus Notes traffic. Because the application gateway understands these protocols, it provides security for each application it supports.

Archiving

An archive is a collection of computer files that have been packaged together for backup, to transport to some other location, for saving away from the computer so that more hard disk storage can be made available, or for some other purpose. An archive can include a simple list of files or files organized under a directory or catalog structure (depending on how a particular program supports archiving).

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

A protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network.

Asymmetric Encryption

Asymmetric or public key cryptography is based on the concept of a key pair. Each half of the pair (one key) can encrypt information so that only the other half (the other key) can decrypt it. One part of the key pair, the private key, is known only by the designated owner; the other part, the public key, is published widely but is still associated with the owner.

Attachment

A file that a user adds to an email message to transfer it to another user.

Authentication

The process of determining the identity of a user that is attempting to access a network. Authentication occurs through challenge/response, time-based code sequences or other techniques. See CHAP and PAP.

Authorization

The process of determining what types of activities or access are permitted on a network. Usually used in the context of authentication: once you have authenticated a user, they may be authorized to have access to a specific service.

B
Bandwidth

Generally speaking, bandwidth is directly proportional to the amount
of data transmitted or received per unit time. In digital systems, bandwidth is proportional to the data speed in bits per second (bps). Thus, a modem that works at 57,600 bps has twice the bandwidth of a modem that works at 28,800 bps.

Bastion host

A specific host that is used to intercept packets entering or leaving a network. and the system that any outsider must ordinarily connect with to access a system or service that is inside the network's firewall. Typically the bastion host must be highly secured because it is vulnerable to attack due to its placement. See dual-homed gateway.

Buffer Overflow Attack

A buffer overflow attack works by exploiting a known bug in one of the applications running on a server. It then causes the application to overlay system areas, such as the system stack, thus gaining administrative rights. In most cases, this gives a hacker complete control over the system. Also referred to as stack overflow.

C
CA (Certificate Authority)

A CA (certificate authority) is an authority in a network that issues and manages security credentials and public keys for message encryption and decryption. As part of a public key infrastructure (PKI), a CA checks with a registration authority (RA) to verify information provided by the requestor of a digital certificate. If the RA verifies the requestor's information, the CA can then issue a certificate.

CGI exploit

When a denial of service attack is aimed at the CGI, it is referred to as a CGI exploit. The CGI (common gateway interface) is a standard way for a Web server to pass a Web user's request to an application program and to receive data back to forward to the user.  It is part of the Web's HTTP protocol.

CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol)

An authentication technique where after a link is established, a server sends a challenge to the requestor. The requestor responds with a value obtained by using a one-way hash function. The server checks the response by comparing it its own calculation of the expected hash value. If the values match, the authentication is acknowledged otherwise the connection is usually terminated.

Checksum or hash

A checksum is a count of the number of bits in a transmission unit that is
included with the unit so that the receiver can check to see whether the same number of bits arrived. If the counts match, it's assumed that the complete transmission was received.

Circuit-level gateways

Circuit-level gateways run proxy applications at the session layer instead of the application layer. They can't distinguish different applications that run on the same protocol stack. However, these gateways don't need a new module for every new application, either. Circuit-level gateway is a firewall feature which can, when needed, serve as an alternative to packet filtering or application gateway functionality.

Client

A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a client in its relationship with the computer that is getting and returning the requested HTML file.

Content blocking

The ability to block network traffic based on actual packet content.

Content scanning or screening

The ability to review the actual information that an end user sees when using a specific Internet application. For example, the content of e-mail.

Content virus

See data driven attack. Commonly protected against with a virus scanner.

D
Daemon

A program that runs continuously and exists for the purpose of handling periodic service requests that a computer system expects to receive. The daemon program forwards the requests to other programs (or processes) as appropriate. Each server of pages on the Web has an HTTPD or Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon that continually waits for requests to come in from Web clients and their users.

Data driven attack

A form of intrusion in which the attack is encoded in seemingly innocuous data, and it is subsequently executed by a user or other software to actually implement the attack.

DES (Data Encryption Standard)

A widely-used method of data encryption using a private (secret) key that was judged so difficult to break by the U.S. government that it was restricted for exportation to other countries. There are 72,000,000,000,000,000 (72 quadrillion) or more possible encryption keys that can be used. For each given message, the key is chosen at random from among this enormous number of keys. Like other private key cryptographic methods, both the sender and the receiver must know and use the same private key.

Denial of service attack

A user or program takes up all the system resources by launching a multitude of requests, leaving no resources and thereby "denying" service to other users. Typically, denial-of-service attacks are aimed at bandwidth control.

Digital Certificate

A digital certificate is an electronic "credit card" that establishes your credentials when doing business or other transactions on the Web. It is issued by a certification authority (CA). It contains your name, a serial number, expiration dates, a copy of the certificate holder's public key (used for encrypting and decrypting messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that a recipient can verify that the certificate is real.

Digital Signature

A digital signature is an electronic rather than a written signature that can be used by someone to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or of the signer of a document. It can also be used to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been conveyed is unchanged. Additional benefits to the use of a digital signature are that it is easily transportable, cannot be easily repudiated, cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.

DMZ (de-militarized zone)

A network added between a protected network and an external network in order to provide an additional layer of security. Sometimes called a perimeter network.

DNS (Domain Name System)

The Internet protocol for mapping host names, domain names and aliases to IP addresses.

DNS spoofing

Breaching the trust relationship by assuming the DNS name of another system. This is usually accomplished by either corrupting the name service cache of a victim system or by compromising a domain name server for a valid domain.

Domain

The unique name used to identify an Internet network.

Domain name server

A repository of addressing information for specific Internet hosts. Name servers use the domain name system to map IP addresses to Internet hosts.

Downstream post office

A post office that communicates with a mail server through another post office or other post offices.

DSX (Dynamic Security Extension)

A proprietary technology that is patented and works in the following way. The operating system has a system call (or vector) table that contains memory address pointers for each system call. These pointers point to a location in memory where the actual kernel code of the system calls resides. DSX stores the address pointers for the security sensitive system calls and then redirects these pointers to the corresponding SECURED system call code, which is located elsewhere in memory.

Dual-homed gateway

A system that has two or more network interfaces, each of which is connected to a different network. In firewall configurations, a dual-homed gateway usually acts to block or filter some or all of the traffic trying to pass between the networks.

E
e-business

e-business" ("electronic business," derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e-commerce") is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners.

e-commerce

e-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and e-business are often used interchangably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing is sometimes used.

email client

An application from which users can create, send and read e-mail messages.

email server

An application that controls the distribution and storage of e-mail messages.

eProcess

A set of software that facilitates the electronic processing of business transactions using e-mail as an enabling technology.

Encryption

Scrambling data in such a way that it can only be unscrambled through the application of the correct cryptographic key.

ESP (Encapsulated Security Payload)

The Encapsulating Security Payload provides confidentiality for IP datagrams or packets, which are the message units that the Internet Protocol deals with and that the Internet transports, by encrypting the payload data to be protected.

Ethernet

A local-area network (LAN) protocol developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 100Mbps.

Extended MAPI (Extended Messaging Application Programming Interface)

An interface developed by Microsoft that provides messaging functions including addressing, sending, receiving and storing messages.

F
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface

A set of ANSI protocols for sending digital data over fiber optic cable. FDDI networks are token-passing networks, and support data rates of up to 100 Mbps (100 million bits) per second. FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for wide-area networks.

Filter

A filter is a program or section of code that is designed to examine each input or output request for certain qualifying criteria and then process or forward it accordingly. .

Firewall

A firewall is a program that protects the resources of one network from users from other networks. Typically, an enterprise with an intranet that allows its workers access to the wider Internet will want a firewall to prevent outsiders from accessing its own private data resources.

Firewall denial-of service

The firewall is specifically subjected to a denial-of-service attack.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

FTP is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols.

G
Gateway

A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. In a company network, a proxy server acts as a gateway between the internal network and the Internet. A gateway may also be any machine or service that passes packets from one network to another network in their trip across the Internet.

Green Screen Terminal

Terminals that are designed to be centrally-managed, configured with only essential equipment, and devoid of CD-ROM players, diskette drives, and expansion slots (and therefore lower in cost).

H
Hacker

Hacker is a term used by some to mean "a clever programmer" and by others, especially journalists or their editors, to mean "someone who tries to break into computer systems."

Highjacking or hijacking

Control of a connection is taken by the attacker after the user authentication has been established.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

A standard set of commands used to structure documents and format text so that it can be used on the Web.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

HTTP is the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols (which are the basis for information exchange on the Internet), HTTP is an application protocol.

I
Insider attack

An attack originating from inside a protected network.

Intrusion detection

Detection of break-ins or break-in attempts by reviewing logs or other information available on a network.

IP (Internet Protocol)

The Internet Protocol is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.

IP spoofing

An attack where the attacker impersonates a trusted system by using its IP network address.

IP hijacking

An attack where an active, established session is intercepted and taken over by the attacker. May take place after authentication has occurred which allows the attacker to assume the role of an already authorized user.

IPSec (Internet Protocol Security )

A developing standard for security at the network or packet processing layer of network communication. IPSec provides two choices of security service: Authentication Header (AH), which essentially allows authentication of the sender of data, and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), which supports both authentication of the sender and encryption of data as well.

J
Java

Java is a programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed environment of the Internet. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces a completely object-oriented view of programming. Java can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. It can also be used to build small application modules or applets for use as part of a Web page. Applets make it possible for a Web page user to interact with the page.

K
Key

In cryptography, a key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text. The length of the key generally determines how difficult it will be to decrypt the text in a given message.

Key Management

The establishment and enforcement of message encryption and authentication procedures, in order to provide privacy-enhanced mail (PEM) services for electronic mail transfer over the Internet.

L
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is an emerging software protocol for enabling anyone to locate organizations, individuals, and other resources such as files and devices in a network, whether on the Internet or on a corporate intranet. LDAP is a "lightweight" (smaller amount of code) version of DAP (Directory Access Protocol), which is part of X.500, a standard for directory services in a network.

Litigation Protection

Litigation protection is both the review and recording of Internet, intranet and extranet communications that is done in order to avoid litigation or the documentation of the communications parties and content in the event of litigation.

M
MAC (Media Access Control)

On a network, the MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number. The MAC address is used by the Media Access Control sublayer of the Data-Link Control (DLC) layer of telecommunication protocols. There is a different MAC sublayer for each physical device type. The Data-Link Layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network.

Manipulation

The insertion of arbitrary streams of data without the user noticing it.

MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface)

An interface developed by Microsoft that provides messaging functions including addressing, sending, receiving and storing messages. Simple MAPI includes some of these functions. Extended MAPI includes all of these functions.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

A protocol used for transmitting documents with different formats via the Internet.

Monitoring

A view of individual user activity on a network, generally in real time. Provides administrators with the ability to view the content of user utilized applications.

N
NAR (Network Address Retention)

A simplified IP addressing capability that eliminates the need to establish an intermediate IP address between a router and a firewall. Sometimes called Proxy-ARP. This feature allows the implementation of a firewall into an existing network without having to establish a new IP address scheme.

NAT (Network Address Translation)

Network Address Translation allows your Intranet to use addresses that are different from what the outside Internet thinks you are using. It permits many users to share a single external IP address at the same time. The NAT provides what some people call "address hiding", which is, as it suggests, security through obscurity at best.

NCSA (National Computer Security Association

An organization with the mission to continually improve commercial computer security through certification of firewalls, anti-virus products and web sites. NCSA also shares and disseminates information concerning information security.

Network Service Access Policy

A high level, issue specific policy which defines those services that will be allowed or explicitly denied from a restricted network, the way in which these services will be used, and the conditions for exceptions to the policy.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is the predominant protocol used by computers (servers and clients) for managing the notes posted on  newsgroups. NNTP replaced the original Usenet protocol, UNIX-to-UN

O
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity

ODBC is a standard or open application programming interface (API) for accessing a database. By using ODBC statements in a program, you can access files in a number of different databases, including Access, dBase, DB2, Excel, and Text. In addition to the ODBC software, a separate module or driver is needed for each database to be accessed.

P
Packet

A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other packet-switched network. When any file (e-mail message, HTML file, GIF file, URL request, and so forth) is sent from one place to another on the Internet, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into "chunks" of an efficient size for routing. Each of these packets is separately numbered and includes the Internet address of the destination. The individual packets for a given file may travel different routes through the Internet. When they have all arrived, they are reassembled into the original file (by the TCP layer at the receiving end).

Packet Filters

Packet filters keep out certain data packets based on their source and destination addresses and service type. Filters can be used to block connections from or to specific hosts, networks or ports. Packet filters are simple and fast. However, they make decisions based on a very limited amount of information.

Packet Sniffing

Intercepting packets of information (including such things for example as a credit card number ) that are traveling between locations on the Internet.

PAP (Password Authentication Procedure)

A procedure used to validate a connection request. After the link is established, the requestor sends a password and an id to the server. The server either validates the request and sends back an acknowledgement, terminates the connection, or offers the requestor another chance.

Password-based attacks

An attack where repetitive attempts are made to duplicate a valid log-in and/or password sequence.

Perimeter network

See DMZ.

PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

A cryptographic product family that enables people to securely exchange  messages, and to secure files, disk volumes and network connections with both privacy and strong authentication.

PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)

A PKI (public key infrastructure) enables users of a basically unsecure public network such as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair that is obtained and shared through a trusted authority.

Platform attack

An attack that is focuses on vulnerabilities in the operating system hosting the firewall.

PPP

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)

An e-mail protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over an Internet connection.

Private Key

In cryptography, a private or secret key is an encryption/decryption key known only to the party or parties that exchange secret messages. In traditional secret key cryptography, a key would be shared by the communicators so that each could encrypt and decrypt messages. The risk in this system is that if either party loses the key or it is stolen, the system is broken. A more recent alternative is to use a combination of public and private keys. In this system, a public key is used together with a private key.

Protocol

A special set of rules for communicating that the end points in a telecommunication connection use when they send signals back and forth. Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. There are hardware telephone protocols. There are protocols between the end points in communicating programs within the same computer or at different locations. Both end points must recognize and observe the protocol. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard.

Proxy

An agent that acts on behalf of a user, typically accepting a connection from a user and completing a connection on behalf of the user with a remote host or service. See also gateway and proxy server.

Proxy Server

A proxy server is one that acts on behalf of one or more other servers, usually for screening, firewall, caching, or a combination of these purposes. Gateway is often used as a synonym for "proxy server." Typically, a proxy server is used within a company or enterprise to gather all Internet requests, forward them out to Internet servers, and then receive the responses and in turn forward them to the original requestor within the company.

Public Key

A public key is a value provided by some designated authority as a key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt and decrypt messages and digital signatures. The use of combined public and private keys is known as asymmetric encryption. A system for using public keys is called a public key infrastructure (PKI).

Q
QoS (Quality of Service)

On the Internet and in other networks, QoS is the idea that transmission rates, error rates, and other characteristics can be measured, improved, and, to some extent, guaranteed in advance. QoS is of particular concern for the continuous transmission of high-bandwidth video and multimedia information.

R
RA (Registration Authority)

An RA (registration authority) is an authority in a network that verifies user requests for a digital certificate and tells the certificate authority (CA) to issue it. RAs are part of a public key infrastructure (PKI), a networked system that enables companies and users to exchange information and money safely and securely.

RAS (Remote Access Services)

A feature built into Windows NT that enables users to log into an NT-based LAN using a modem, X.25 connection or WAN link. RAS works with several major network protocols, including TCP/IP, IPX, and NetBEUI.

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

The oldest routing protocol on the Internet and the most commonly used routing protocol on local area IP networks. Routers use RIP to periodically broadcast which networks they know how to reach.

Routing Agent

On the Internet, an agent (also called an intelligent agent) is a program that gathers information or performs some other service without your immediate presence and on some regular schedule. Typically, an agent program, using parameters you have provided, searches all or some part of the Internet, gathers information you're interested in, and presents it to you on a daily or other periodic basis.

RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)

One of the fundamental encryption algorithms or series of mathematical actions developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. The RSA algorithm is the most commonly used encryption and authentication algorithm and is included as part of the Web browsers from Netscape and Microsoft.

RSACi (Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet)

A computer software ratings system of Web site content developed by RSAC in response to the passage of US federal legislation prohibiting the transmittal of offensive, or indecent, materials over the Internet. RSACi was developed with the express intent of providing a simple, yet effective rating system for web sites which protect both children, by providing and empowering parents with detailed information about site content, and the rights of free speech of everyone who publishes on the World Wide Web.

Rules

Criteria that are used to organize and control incoming messages automatically. When you set up a rule, you designate the criteria that selects a specific class of messages and then you select one or more actions to handle the messages that meet the criteria.

S
Screening router

A router configured to permit or deny traffic based on a set of permission rules installed by the administrator.

Session

In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)  communications model, the Session layer (sometimes called the "port layer") manages the setting up and taking down of the association between two communicating end points that is called a connection. A connection is maintained while the two end points are communicating back and forth in a conversation or session of some duration. Some connections and sessions last only long enough to send a message in one direction. However, other sessions may last longer, usually with one or both of the communicating parties able to terminate it.

Shared POP3 mailbox

A mailbox that stores messages for an entire domain that allows organizations with part-time Internet connections to exchange mail.

SLIP

SLIP is a TCP/IP protocol used for communication between two machines that are previously configured for communication with each other.

Smart Card

About the size of a credit card, a smart card is a plastic card with an embedded microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically "recharged" for additional use. Currently used to establish your identity when logging on to an Internet access provider.

S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose Mail Extensions)

S/MIME is an E-mail security protocol. It was designed to prevent the interception and forgery of E-mail by using encryption and digital signatures. S/MIME builds security on top of the MIME protocol and is based on technology originally developed by RSA Data Security, Inc.

SMF (Standard Message Format)

A message file format established by Novell and used by many e-mail applications.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)

The standard protocol used for Internet e-mail messages.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

The protocol governing network management and the monitoring of network
devices and their functions.

Social engineering

An attack based on tricking or deceiving users or administrators into revealing passwords or other information that compromises a target system's security. Social engineering attacks are typically carried out by telephoning users or operators and pretending to be an authorized user.

Source-Routing

Normal IP packets have only source and destination addresses in their headers, leaving the actual route taken to the routers in between the source and the destination. Source-routed IP packets have additional information in the header that specifies the route the packet should take. This additional routing is specified by the source host, hence the name source-routed.

Source-Route Attack

A form of spoofing whereby the routing, as indicated in the source routed  packet, is not coming from a trusted source and therefore the packet is being routed illicitly.

Spoofing

The term for establishing a connection with a  forged sender address. This normally involves exploiting a trust relationship that exists between source and destination addresses/systems.

Spool File

A report that has been sent to the printer control software on the AS400, to be disposed of by the printer agent. Similar to Print Manager on Windows.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

A program layer created by Netscape for managing the security of message transmissions in a network. Netscape's idea is that the programming for keeping your messages confidential ought to be contained in a program layer between an application (such as your Web browser or HTTP) and the Internet's TCP/IP layers. The "sockets" part of the term refers to the sockets method of passing data back and forth between a client and a server program in a network or between program layers in the same computer.

Stateful

Stateful and stateless are adjectives that describe whether a computer or computer program is designed to note and remember one or more preceding events in a given sequence of interactions with a user, another computer or program, a device, or other outside element. Stateful means the computer or program keeps track of the state of interaction, usually by setting values in a storage field designated for that purpose.

Stateful inspection

Analysis of data within the lowest levels of the protocol stack and comparing the  current session to previous ones in order to detect suspicious activity. Unlike application level gateways, stateful inspection uses business rules defined by the user and therefore does not rely on predefined application information. Stateful inspection also takes less processing power than application level analysis. Stateful inspection firewalls do not recognize specific applications and thus are unable to apply different rules to different applications.

STOP (Stack Overflow Protection)

Stack or buffer overflow attacks continue to be a favorite technique used by hackers for breaking into servers. STOP reallocates the location of the system stack. The stack is the area to which the attacker is trying to have the data overflow. This is like reshuffling the cards in a deck, making it very difficult for the attacker to predict the location for the overflow data. This simple and transparent approach renders overflow attacks unsuccessful.

Symmetric Encryption

The oldest form of key-based cryptography is called secret-key or symmetric encryption. In this scheme, both the sender and recipient possess the same key, which means that both parties can encrypt and decrypt data with the key.

T
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

The standard family of protocols for communicating with Internet devices.

Telnet

A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console

Token Ring

A type of computer network in which all the computers are arranged (schematically) in a circle. A token, which is a special bit pattern, travels around the circle. To send a message, a computer catches the token, attaches a message to it, and then lets it continue to travel around the network.

Tracking

The logging of inbound and outbound messages based on a predefined criteria. Logging is usually done to allow for further analysis of the data at a future date or time.

Trojan horse

A software entity that appears to do something quite normal but which, in fact, contains a trapdoor or attack program.

Tunneling router

A router or system capable of routing traffic by encrypting it and encapsulating it for transmission across an untrusted network, for eventual de-encapsulation and decryption.

U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol

A connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on top of IP networks. Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP provides very few error recovery services, offering instead a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP network. It's used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

An address in a standard format that locates files (resources) on the Internet and the Web. The type of resource depends on the Internet application protocol. Using the World Wide Web's protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) , the resource can be an HTML page (like the one you're reading), an image file, a program such as a CGI application or Java applet, or any other file supported by HTTP. The URL contains the name of the protocol required to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the computer.

URL Blocking

The tracking and denying of user access to undesirable web sites based on   predefined site content. 

User Authentication

Authentication is a process that verifies a user's identity to ensure that the person requesting access to the private network is in fact, that person to whom entry is authorized.

UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol)

A set of UNIX programs for copying (sending) files between different UNIX systems and for sending commands to be executed on another system.

UUencode

A data encoding standard developed to translate or convert a file or e-mail attachment (it can be an image, a text file, or a program) from its binary or bit-stream representation into the 7-bit ASCII set of text characters.

V
Vandal
A vandal is an executable file, usually an applet or an ActiveX control, associated with a Web page that is designed to be harmful, malicious, or at the very least inconvenient to the user. Since such applets or little application programs can be embedded in any HTML file, they can also arrive as an e-mail attachment or automatically as the result of being pushed to the user. Vandals can be viewed as viruses that can arrive over the Internet stuck to a Web page. Vandals are sometimes referred to as "hostile applets."
Virus

A virus is a piece of programming code inserted into other programming to cause some unexpected and, for the victim, usually undesirable event. Viruses can be transmitted by downloading programming from other sites or be present on a diskette. The source of the file you're downloading or of a diskette you've received is often unaware of the virus. The virus lies dormant until circumstances cause its code to be executed by the computer. Some viruses are playful in intent and effect and some can be quite harmful, erasing data or causing your hard disk to require reformatting.

Virus Scanner

A program that searches files for possible viruses, including email and attachments.

VPN (Virtual Private Networking)

A remote user session through a firewall using encrypted communications.

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WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

An open global standard for communications between a mobile handset and the Internet or other computer applications as defined by the WAP forum.

Web Attack

Any attack from the outside aimed at Web server vulnerabilities.

Web Browser

A Web browser is a client program that uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make requests of Web servers throughout the Internet on behalf of the browser user.

Web denial-of-service

The Web server is specifically subjected to denial-of-service attacks.

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X.509

The most widely used standard for defining digital certificates. X.509 is actually an ITU Recommendation, which means that has not yet been officially defined or approved. As a result, companies have implemented the standard in different ways. For example, both Netscape and Microsoft use X.509 certificates to implement SSL in their Web servers and browsers. But an X.509 Certificate generated by Netscape may not be readable by Microsoft products, and vice versa.

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Service Strategies Inc.

2392 Mount Vernon Rd

Dunwoody, GA 30338-3092

678-441-0020   800-662-1615

info@ssimail.com

Copyright 1998,1999,2000 Service Strategies Inc. All rights reserved.
Revised: April 06, 2000.